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英语写作如何造句、谋篇

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    新课程标准规定的写作要求突出了对遣词造句、谋篇布局、情感表达的要求。下面就在教学中如何从造句、谋篇两个方面培养和提高学生的写作能力谈谈我的看法。
    一、造句
    句子是表达一个完整意思的最小单位,好的英语句子能够生动、形象、准确地表达内容。要想写出漂亮的英语作文,必须从写好句子开始。要使学生能造出完整的句子.系统的句型教学是关键。简单、直观的句型教学,学生易于接受。也能减轻学生学习英语的焦虑心理。此外,句型教学还起着化繁为简的作用。将句型作为一个基点.可以把语法规则、词汇搭配、课文重点都融入其中,反复操练后,可使学生达到出口成句、运用自如的效果,.句型的操练方法多种多样.可以用替换式操练、改写式操练、联结式操练或者汉译英等形式。
    1.改变句子的开头方式。不要一味都用主语开头,接着是谓语、宾语.最后再加一个状语。可以把状语置于句首,或用分词作状语等。试比较:
    (原文)My brother and I went to the cinema by bicycle the other day.
    (修正)The other day my brother and I went to the cinema by bicycle.
    (原文)The young man couldn’t help crying when he heard the bad news.
    (修正)Hearing the bad news,the young man couldn’t help crying.
    2.在整篇文章中。避免只使用一两个句式。要灵活运用诸如强调句、主从复合句、分词短语、倒装句、省略句等。例如:
    A.强调句
    (原文)The dog has saved my little sister bravely.
    (修正)It is the dog that has saved my little sister bravely.
    B.主从复合句
    (原文)We had to stand there to catch the offender.
    (修正)What we had to do was to stand there,trying to catch the offender.
    C.分词短语、由with或without引导的短语
    (原文)The driver escaped and didn’t stop . He left the old man lying on the road.
    (修正)The driver escaped without stopping,leaving the old man lying on the road.
    D.倒装句
    (原文)I went to bed at 11:30.
    (修正)Not until 11:30 did I go to bed.
    E.省略句
    (原文)While you are crossing the street,you should be careful.
    (修正)While crossing the street,you should be careful.
    F.通过分句和合句, 增强句子的连贯性和表现力
    (原文)He stopped us an hour ago.He made us catch the next offender.
    (修正)He stopped us an hour ago and made us catch the next offender.
    (原文)We had a short rest.Then we began to play happily.We sang and danced.
    (修正)After a short rest,we had great fun singing and dancing.
    二、谋篇
    1.注意连接词的使用
    满分作文都有个共性,就是有效地使用了语句间的连接成分.使全文结构紧凑。文章的连贯性和紧凑感是很重要的,因此练习正确使用连接词是提高写作能力的有效方法。教师在教学中应注意总结表达不同关系的连接词。
    表并列补充关系的:what is more.besides, also, as well, moreover,furthermore,in addition
    表转折对比关系的:but,however.yet,instead,on the other hand,on the contrary,although,in spite of, nevertheless,not only…but also,on one hand…on the other hand,some…others
    表因果关系的:since,as,because(of),for,so,thus,therefore,as a result,so that
    表条件关系的:if, on the condition( that),as long as,unless,or else
    表时间关系的:when,after ,before.until,as soon as,later,soon,lately,recently,since,from then on,eventually,in the meantime,then,suddenly,at the same time,next,early this morning,year/century,now,finally,at last, all of a sudden
    表特定的顺序关系的:above a11,first of all,firstly,first,secondly,next,finally,at last
    表换一种方式说明的: in other words,that is to say
    表进行举例说明的:for instance.for example,like,such as
    表陈述事实的:in fact, actually,as a matter of fact,to tell you the truth
    表总结的:on the whole.in short.all in all,in a word,in conclusion.in general
    2.联句成段、篇的训练
    学生掌握了一定的句型,并能较为自如地造句时,应该引导学生作进一步训练,把句与句联成段或篇。其间要注意连接词与句子的运用。以2001年高考作文为例。在信的开头可加上“Do you want to know something about what is going on in schools in China?” 这句话有承上启下的作用.使文章过渡自然;再如,用“What was worse?”引出减负前晚上还要做作业.就寝时间一直要到11:30等写作要点。又如.用“Now I have more free time…”可引出减负后的情况。另外,在信的结尾.可用“How about you? I’m looking forward to hearing from you.”来自然地结束这封信。
   3.巧妙使用过渡词语
   写好了每个句子.连起来并不一定就是一篇好文章,因为一篇好文章必须行文连贯。那么,如何使文章行文连贯呢?这就要求我们在组成篇章时.要用好过渡性词语,过渡性词语就像组装机器时使用的润滑剂一样,起着润滑的作用。
    要提高学生的书面表达能力绝不是一两堂课就能解决了的问题。它需要长时间的系统学习和训练。恰到好处的指导与训练,可以起到事半功倍的效果。老师应根据自己学生的实际情况.帮助学生运用技巧,写出“亮”点.漂亮“作”文。只要坚持不懈,持之以恒.一定会有所收获。
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