用户名: 密码:  用户登录   新用户注册  忘记密码  账号激活
您的位置:教学资源网 >  教研天地  >  学法指导 >  阅读文章

单项填空题解题技巧十法

阅读:1815 次  我要评论(0)  收藏  2013/4/8 14:48:56
分享到:
    近几年来,高考英语试题中考查学生基础知识的常规题型单项填空题已逐渐避免单纯地考查语法知识,而是结合语用知识考查语法,突出题目的语境化,口语化,综合化,更加注重考查学生实际运用的能力,从而更增加了题目的灵活性和难度。本文就此探索高考试题中增加试题难度的常见手段及解题技巧,以帮助同学们备战高考,取得佳绩。
一、语境法
在处理知识与能力的关系时,很注意在尽可能真实与自然的语境中考查知识的掌握与运用情况,因而对词语辨析、时态选择和某些语法知识常置于一定的语境中。
1. If you want to change for a double room you’ll have to play ______ $15.   
 A. another B. Other C. more D. each
由上下文if you want to change for a double room可推知,必须另外再加钱,故用another再加15美元,即another 15 dollars. 故正确答案为A。而C项应为$15 more.
2. ----He promised to come to see you.
   ----But he ____ I’ve been alone.
A. doesn’t B. didn’t C. won’t D. hasn’t
该题是在语境中考查动词的时态,很容易因为前文中“He promised”而误选B项。事实上,应注意“I have been alone.”是分析空格处时态的重要依据。他不仅过去没有来,而且现在仍然没有来。故正确答案为D
3. ----It’s getting late. I’m afraid I must be going now.
  ----OK. _____.
A. Take it easy B. Go slowly C. Stay longer D. See you
考生容易受中文思维的影响而误选B. 实际上,根据英文习惯表达应选D. A C项不符合语境,see you是很常见的口头语,意思为再见,相当于Goodbye / See you soon / See you later.
二、假设法
如果对单项选择题的选项感到困惑,而又难以突破时,我们可以换一个角度,从假设某项成立出发,结合题意,进行分析推理,从而打开解题思路,变难为易。
4. It was 3 o’clock _____ they arrived at the station.
A. that B. when C. after D. before
该题正确答案为B. 但很多学生认为这是强调句而选A. 现在假设A选项成立,即:It was 3 o’clock that they arrived at the station. 根据强调句的验证方法,去掉it was…that… 即变为:3 o’clock they arrived at the station. 这显然是错的。因为3 o’clock前缺少介词at 故假设不成立。it在此不属于强调结构,而是指代时间的无人称代词。而选B则是由when引导的时间状语从句。意思为当他们到达车站时,时间是3点钟。
5. Is this the factory ____ you visited the other day?
A. the one B. that C. where D. why
对于此题,有些学生选C. 理由是这个定语从句的先行词表示地点。现在假设C是正确的,即Is this the factory where you visited the other day?而在定语从句中的谓语动词visited为及物动词,一定要带宾语,但where是副词,不可能充当宾语,所以假设不成立。由此分析,而得出正确答案应为B.
6. _____ he really means is that he disagrees with us.
A. What B. That C. Why D. If
对于此题,考生不知选A还是选B. 其实答案为A. 现在假设B是正确的,即That he really means is that he disagrees with us. 这样That he really means为一个主语从句,mean为及物动词,缺少宾语,因为that只是起到连接作用,而不能充当宾语,所以假设不成立。
当解题感到困惑时,可以假设某选项为正确答案,将此答案填入句中,对全句结构进行分析。这对解题可以起到良好的启迪和导向作用。
三、突破思维定势法
思维定势是学习过程中形成的一种习惯性的思维倾向。它在语言学习过程中可以起到积极的作用;但也会误导学生不仔细分析问题,生搬硬套地去答题。因此,命题者会有意地利用学生的思维定势,造成学生解题的失误。这样,学生就应当灵活运用所学知识去分析解决问题。
7. ----Is _____ here?
   ---No Bob and Tim have asked for leave.
A. anyone B. somebody C. everyone D. nobody
学生根据语法规则,一看到疑问句便会选择A项,并认为这太简单了。但由下文的信息:不,BobTim请假了。便知,这实际上是课堂上或其他一些场合经常用到的交际用语,意思是:大家到齐了吗?。故答案为C. 必须注意,语法规则必须融入到语言情景之中,使其达到交际的目的,决不能孤立地使用。此类考题是考查学生在特定语境中准确运用语法知识的能力。考题中语境的设置较为自然、巧妙,要求考生选择的不只是正确答案,而是最佳答案。因此,考生答题时,一定要准确把握语境,通盘考虑,分析语法成分,从而选取正确答案。
8. The home improvements have taken what little there is _____ my spare time.
A. from B. in C. of D. at
许多考生受“in one’s spare time”固定搭配的影响,在没有分析句子结构的前提下而错选B. 事实上,后面的从句可以还原为:What little of my spare time there is. 从句中的little是名词,意思是“the small amount ”,常与“of”搭配。题干句意为:改善家庭居住条件占去了我仅有的一点业余时间。经过这样化繁为简,我们就很容易看清原句的结构,从而选择正确答案C.
此类填空题在题干的设计上把词汇、习惯用语放在一个特定的语言环境中来考查,从而加大了考查语言运用能力的难度。因此,答题时不要孤立地看某一短语,要通过上下文所给的信息进行分析,弄清整个句子结构,推断某一习惯用法、固定短语在具体语境中的运用。
9. If anybody calls tell them I’m out and ask them to _____ their name and address.
A. pass B. write C. take D. leave
考生容易受母语写下姓名和地址这一习惯表达方式的影响而错选B. 但该题考查具体语境中动词的辨析。该句的意思是:如果有人打电话,告诉他我出去了,请他留下姓名和地址。所以B. leave“留下才是正确答案。
对于此类考题,学生容易受母语的影响而错选答案。虽然汉语和英语之间有许多相同之处,但也存在不少差异。因此,考生答题时必须弄清两者之间的区别,分辨语境,消除母语负迁移带来的影响。
四、推测法
考生对于少数难题、迷惑题而望而生畏。但考生可根据题干特定信息,句子结构,语法进行有理有据的合理推测,排除掉错误答案,从而找出正确的答案。
10. Peter _____ come with us tonight but he isn’t very sure yet.
A. must B. can C. may D. will
题干中的信息有“……但他还不十分肯定。由此推测他不是必须来,不是将会来,也不是能够来,而是可能来,因而C为正确答案。
11. _____ from Beijing to London!
A. How long way it is B. What a long way is it
C. How long way is it D. What a long way it is
way
是可数名词,首先排除AC. 此句不是问句,根据句子结构要求,要用陈述句的语序,因此,正确答案为D.
12. If there were no examinations we should have a _____ school.
A. the happiest time B. a more happier time
C. much happiest time D. a much happier time
B
C的形式明显有错,首先排除,重点考虑AD,此句没有三者以上的范围,仅是有考试没有考试两种情况的对照,所以D为正确答案。当使用推测法对某个选项的意义用法不明确时,而这个选项又恰恰是正确答案,可以将错误选项逐个剔除,确定剩余的一个为正确答案。
五、还原法
在解答那些题干为感叹句,倒装句,强调句等打乱了正常语序的单项选择题时,考生可以将其还原为正常语序后的简单句,陈述句再作选择的方法。这类题题干复杂,多元化,容易干扰考生的思路。因此做这类题时,采用还原法打破考生的定向思维,突破考点,培养学生的创造性思维,逆向思维,以便考生在解题过程中,保持清醒的头脑,挖掘出题目的核心,考点,快速找到正确答案。
13. What a lovely day _____?
A. is it B. isn’t it C. is he D. isn’t he
对于反意疑问句的构成,考生再熟悉不过了。但对于这种特殊的反意疑问句,考生可能就无从下手了,甚至连正确答案给出来了也看不明白。如果我们采用还原法,将题干What a lovely day!这个感叹句还原成陈述句:It’s a lovely day. 这样,再将此句变成反意疑问句,考生便会恍然大悟,从而得出答案B.
14. Whom would you rather have _____ with you?
A. to go B. go C. gone D. going
考生由于受语法规则的影响,have后应接to gogone 这样容易误选AC. 如果我们将此题改为陈述句,即为:You would rather have whom _____ with you. 这样我们一眼就可以看出答案为B. 本题的考点是使役动词have的宾语补足语用动词原形表示将来。
15. It was _____ computer games that cost the boy a lot of time he ought to have spent on his lessons.
A. to have played B. playing C. played D. having played
此题题干我们判断是否为强调句,采用还原法,即去掉题干中的it is (was) …that (who) …如果句子仍然成立,能够表达完整的意思,则是强调句;否则,则不是强调句型。去掉it was … that后,变为_____computer games cost the boy a lot of time he ought to have spent on his lessons.很容易看出本题应为-ing形式短语作主语,但不必用完成式。正确答案为B.
六、省略法
高考例题者常常利用熟悉的句型结构,在其中插入一些词、短语搭配、插入语和定语从句来制造陷阱,增加创新力度,产生迷惑性,似是而非,从而让考生在非常神气的心情中快速地得出错误的答案导致失分。这就要求考生对整个语言环境进入深入分析,在较高的能力水平上,细心而自如地运用一个或几个知识点来解题。这样,我们在分析句子结构的基础上采用省略法,省掉插入成分的前提下,简化句子结构,从而找出正确答案。
16. He has spent I think a lot ______ time in reading than she has.
A. of B. more C. much more D. of much more
此题易错选AC. A形成a lot of搭配;选C形成much more time much修饰比较级。但我们通过分析题干,去掉插入语I think,该句可简化为:He has spent a lot _____ time in reading than she has. a lot相当于 much起修饰作用,而不必再用much,从而得出正确答案为B.
17. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play _____ of course made the others unhappy.
A. who B. which C. this D. what
通过分析题干,可以得知of course为插入语,将其去掉,该句简化为:Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play _____made the others unhappy. 这样,考生就很容易看出应用which代表整个主句内容,构成非限制性定语从句,正确答案为B.
18. With everything she needed ______ she went home.
A. washed B. being washed C. washing D. wash
考生初看此题,可能不知所措。我们通过分析题干得知,she needed是一个定语从句,关系代词that省略了,去掉从句,该句简化为:With everything _____ she went home. with everything _____“with复合结构,句意为:把所有需要的东西洗完之后,她回家去了。故正确答案为A.
七、补全法
与省略法相反的是,在一些单项填空题中,句子省略了某些成分的特殊结构较大地增加了试题的难度,我们可运用分析句子结构的方法,补全句子,破解难点,寻求正确答案。
19. Though ______ money his parents managed to send him to university.
A. lacked B. lacking of C. lacking D. lacked in
对于此题,我们可以采用补全句子的方法寻找正确答案。将句子补全为:Though they lacked money his parents managed to send him to university. 这样,题干中they被省略了,lackthey呈主动关系,所以用现在分词形式,故正确答案为C.
在某些复合句中,从属连词when if once though as soon as while等引导的从句,从句的主语与主句的主语相同,常将从句的主语和谓语be动词省略,或省略主语,谓语动词采用分词形式。
20. Boris has brains. In fact I doubt whether anyone in the class has ______ IQ.
A. a high B. a higher C. the higher D. the highest
通过分析句子结构,该题省略了than he does. 将其补全应为:Boris has brains. In fact I doubt whether anyone in the class has ______ IQ than he does. 所以应用比较级,并且此处的比较级表达最高级的含义,从而得出正确答案为B.
21. ----What made her mother so angry?
---- ______ the exam.
A. Because she didn’t pass B. Her not passing
C. She didn’t D. Because her not passing
通过分析句子结构,将答语部分补全为:_____ the exam made her mother so angry. 可以看出少了一个主语,而能用作主语的是答案B. 这个选项是一个动名词的复合结构。
八、时态背景分析法    时态是高考的重要内容之一,而在考题中往往不给出具体的时间,从而增加解题难度。而历年高考对动词时态的考查偏重于过去进行时,现在/ 过去完成时,一般将来时或特殊过去时。这就要求考生认真分析动作所发生的时间,想象在那个特定时间动作所发生的背景,结合题意,选择正确时态。
22. My mind wasn't on what he was saying so I'm afraid I ______ half of it.
A. was missing B. had missed C. will miss D. missed
此题没有确切的时间,但我们可根据前一分句的时态去分析,前句用过去时,so在这里连接的是并列句,I’m afraid为插入语,所以后面也用一般过去时,保持时态的一致性。故正确答案为D。可能有的考生受中文思维的影响,认为脑袋里想着已经错过,发生在正在说什么之前而误选B。其实,这里并没有体现出过去的过去的背景,前后两个分句的动作应是同时发生的。
23. The reporter said that the UFO ____ east to west when he saw it.
A. was travelling B. travelled C. had been travelling D. was to travel
when引导的时间状语从句体现过去的特定时间点,即:当记者看见飞碟的时候,飞碟正在自东向西飞行。也就是说,记者看到飞碟的那一刻,它正在飞行。故正确答案为A
24. The price ____ but I doubt whether it will remain so.
A. went down B. will go down C. has gone down D. was going down
根据后一分句doubt时态可知,时间参照点为现在,表示到现在为止价格已下降。故正确答案为C。如果将后一分句改为:but I doubted whether it would remain so. 则正确答案为had gone down. 因为下降这一动作发生在doubt怀疑之前,即过去的过去
考生在解答此类试题时,应认真分析动作时态背景,而分析动作时态背景时,考生应细心寻找特定时间状语、时间参照点和特殊语境,并以此为突破口,进行认真的分析,从而巧妙解出对应的时态。
九、固定搭配法       英语句子中词语和词语之间有一定的固定搭配。主要包括短语介词,短语动词,冠词在固定搭配中的用法等。因此,如果我们熟悉这些固定搭配,就会很容易地选择正确答案。
25. For a long time they walked without saying ______ word. Jim was
the first to break_____ silence
A. the; a B. a; the; C. a;
不填 D. the;不填该题看似考查冠词,实际上是考查冠词在固定搭配中的用法。这里say a word表示说话break the silence表示打破沉默。故正确答案为B.
26. Everyone in the town knew him so we had no difficulty _____ his house.
A. find B. found C. finding D. to find
根据固定搭配动词短语have difficulty in doing sth. 其中in可以省略。故正确答案为C.
27. He joined us ______ a new way of increasing production.
A. in search of B. in search for
C. in the search of D. in searching of
此题考查介词短语的用法。与此相关的正确短语有:in search of in one’s search for in the search for. 故正确答案为A.
十、相似结构辨析法        命题者常把语法结构相似的句型放在同一语境中,用来考查考生对基础知识掌握的牢固程度。这就要求考生找出要考查的知识要点,并加以比较和辨析,认清它们之间的区别,从而找出正确答案。
28. The number of people invited _____ fifty but a number of them _____ absent for different reasons.
A. were; was B. was; was C. was; were D. were; were
本题考查两个相似的短语结构:a number of the number of. The number of people在句中作主语,指被邀请的人的数量,后面的谓语应用单数形式;a number of them意思是many of them. 后面的谓语动词用复数形式。故正确答案为C.
29. ----The light in the office is still on.
----Oh I forgot ______.
A. turning it off B. turn it off
C. to turn it off D. having turned it off
该题考查的是:forget to do sth. forget doing sth. 在用法上的区别。前者意思是忘记了要做某事,而后者则是忘记曾经做过某事。根据句中提供的情景办公室还亮着灯,可判断出正确答案为C.
30. _____ many times he still couldn’t understand it.
A. Having been told B. Though he had told
C. He had been told D. Having told him
根据语境,选项应用被动语态形式,即只能从AC中选取正确答案。可能有的考生认为AC都可以,选C更为正确。其实,通过分析题干,句中缺少连词,因为在英语中,两个单句之间若是逗号,必须要有一个连词;否则,要用分号或用不能单独使用的句法成份。根据题意,having been told作状语。故正确答案为A. 若要选C,则可将题干改为:_____ many times but he still couldn’t understand it.

    总之,在答题时,我们既要注意将语法、语境和语言文化背景相结合,€€€€又要注意从多方面提高€€解题技巧,最终提高分析问题和解决问题的能力。

     来源:教学资源网  编辑:秦志东  返回顶部  关闭页面  
  • 暂时没有相关评论